Warp Theory: A primer in FTL drive systems.

Submitted for the review of scholars

__By: Dr. Ael Rin Sirion__

Quantum Technician

*NOTE: The amount of mail that I get concerning this paper requires me to insert this
foreword into this paper. You can tell from a reading of this paper that I have invested
a great deal of work in this text. It is pleasing to hear how seriously this paper is being
taken. Dr. Sirion, however, is a creation of mine and not my true identity. As far as I
can honestly relate to you, there is no such person known to me. I hope that this does
not reduce the effect of this paper within its intended audience.*

The secret of warp capacities lies in knowing why the light speed limit exists.
Understanding this technology will require an advanced understanding of relativity. In
simple, how was the light speed limit arrived at in the first place? That is the point as
which we, thusly I, should begin.

Relativity is a fascinating concept in that it states that objective observation is really
subjective. For example, from a planet's viewpoint, its star appears to be moving and the
world looks stationary. If we look at the same system from the viewpoint as the star, the
planet appears to be moving. From the viewpoint of the galaxy, both will appear to be
moving compared to a "relatively stationary" galaxy. And it goes on like this.

Now we question which of these is the truth. The only reasonable answer to this question
is that all of these observations, and countless others which I have not mentioned, are all
true. How can a contradiction be the truth? Relatively! Since there is no single universal
reference point which we can all agree upon as absolutely stationary, we cannot discern if
any of these reference points is truly stationary. All movement must be measured relative
to a "relatively stationary" reference point since there is no objectively stationary
reference upon which to base all movement.

This being said, we can refer to ourselves as stationary. If you have ever moved about in
a vehicle that moves at a smooth acceleration, then you have felt a phenomenon which is
the basis for relativity. You feel stationary and objects you see through the view ports
appear to be moving. Should your vehicle drift forward, relative to the vehicle directly
beside you, you may try to stop your forward momentum even if it is the other vehicle,
your relatively stationary reference point, which is actually drifting backwards.

Although it appears that I'm off course in this dissertation, this is an important concept.
With the exception of reference points, designated stationary or moving, you have no
sensory clue that you are moving. This leads us to question what will happen if you were
to have a clue to movement outside of the reference point? Absolute proof of such a thing
would topple relativity as we know it.

Now we come to a point where we have just such an experiment. Without the above
assertion, we will not arrive at relativity. It is an absolute belief that there is no such
sensory proof that will shatter the stationary illusion of SMOOTH acceleration that leads
to relativity.

You hop into your space ship, and move off to the nearest star. All the time, you
accelerate smoothly to maintain a 1 G environment. There is a mirror above you,
perpendicular to the nosecone. Clearly, the light from your face moves to the mirror at C-(ship's velocity) and bounces back at c+(Ship's velocity) . If you were to keep going for
so long that you reached the speed of light, C, then the light moving toward the mirror
would be moving at C-C or 0 units per second. Your reflection would vanish. Suddenly,
you have sensory proof that you're moving.

Don't let the C+C case of the light coming back at you escape notice either. The extancy
of the constant C states that light has a fixed velocity through any medium, including the
air of your ship. As a result, light will always return from the mirror at C units per
second. Base a clock on this structure and something amazing will happen.

Assume that the clock is so large that a beam of light bouncing from the mirror would
take 1 second to return. That leads us to the equation that the distance to the mirror, D, is
C/2 units. The total speed of the light beam is C-V(Ship's velocity =V) for the outgoing
leg and C for the incoming leg. ( C-V+C = 2C-V units per second)

At this point, we are using SPOTS [Simultaneous Pulse Optical Transmission System ]
transponders, which can send and receive photon pulses from the same element. It is
important to note that this is isolinear in that the pulse moves directly forward in the
exact direction that the ship is moving and moves directly back over the same path.
When the ship's velocity is C, then the photon pulses will move toward the mirror at the
same velocity as the mirror will be moving away from the SPOTS transponder. The
result is that time stops. Up until this point, the return leg of the voyage taken by the
photon pulse shortens by the same distance as the departing leg lengthens from the
movement of the ship.

Even though all the points for a single, strait line, we have a triangle. Now we do the
experiment in the old way, where the sender and receiver elements of the photon pulse
are side by side. Now the photon pulse has to move across the ship as well as moving
from front to back along the ship. Something interesting happens. The beam is moving
toward the receiver throughout its entire flight, thus, if the flight to the mirror is
lengthened by the movement of the ship, this pulse hits the mirror off center. If the mirror
is not wide enough to reach between the centers of both the sender and receiver, then
there is a speed at which the beam would miss the mirror.

This leads to an odd perception in which you, unaware that there is any relative
momentum, see space warping in the mirror. Suddenly, you can see further to one side of
the room, beside you, than you could. It's a slow process, depending on the velocity
increase during this time, however, you could eventually see the side of objects which
face the mirror. Note, that any change in relative velocity voids the guarantee of
relativity. Acceleration, as used in this paper, refers to the movement of the bodies
involved and not to a change in velocity.

And now we get to the transverse experiment. The mirror is now mounted on the port
side, with the sender and receivers mounted at opposite ends of the Starboard wall. The
receiver is at the front of the ship and the sender is at the tail. Now, viewed from outside,
the photon pulse has to catch up with the mirror, and then catch up with the receiver. If
we were to compute the distance as viewed from outside the ship, it would be much
further from the sender to the receiver, off the mirror, than it is from the inside of the
ship. Time is slowed. Interestingly, the opposite will happen if the beam was to be fired
the other way, from front to back. Time speeds up moving in that direction.

This stretching of time is spatial relativity. If we were to compute the triangle formed by
the sender, mirror and receiver, it would be possible to arrive at the remarkable E=MC^2
as the amount of energy contained in 'dead mass,' but that is not our current concern, so
we'll skip the exercise. Yet, it is important to note that this formula expresses only the
energy in the mass and not the energies which can be stored in it. Heat, kinetic and the
like are added to this. That is important because the increase in kinetic energy as we
approach C adds to the apparent mass of the body and is part of why we cannot exceed C
within Normal N-Space [time-space].

The slowing down of time and the relative increase in mass are the real reasons that FTL
[Faster than Light] drive is considered impossible. It is important that you know these
effects, however, it is not important that we discuss them at length because they must
NOT apply in the processes outlined in this paper or FTL drive, all of warp technology,
will be invalidated.

Notice another odd effect. All falling bodies are conducted through space at the same
velocity under a gravitational acceleration. Weight and mass seem to have no effect on
gravitational acceleration. This simple observation is the beginning of inertial bias, field
acceleration and full blown spatial warping. Although inertia is added to these bodies
while they are in relative free-fall, there is no difference in the way that the field of
gravity reacts as a result of this increase. In fact, the increase in mass that results from
high velocity momentum actually adds strength to the gravitic field it generates.

Matter is comprised of many small components that act as larger singular structures. The
exact nature of these components is purely theoretical, although it is known that such
structures contain energy bounded within quantum fields. These are genesit particles,
particles on the boundary between matter and energy such as photons, existing as bubbles
of quantum forces which are full of pure energy.

If you wish to accelerate such constructions, you will notice that the whole structure will
deform as the inertial forces along some connections propagate. Inertia itself is an
expression of this deformation in the way that the attempt to accelerate the body in one
inertial state must move through the body and reach each component of the body in order
for it to reach a stable rate of movement. Clearly, the speed of inertia is the speed of
sound through the medium in question.

Since the force that is applied to change the inertial state of a body is applied to a small
portion of the body, the components of the body adjacent to that point will be moving
relatively faster than the remaining portions of the body. Contraction along the body will
result in something called inertial compression, which can cause stress failures in the
mechanical and structural systems of the body in question.

Sound, like acceleration, is a compression wave, thusly, the speed of sound increases
proportionally to the density of the medium. This velocity is not a matter of the
compressibility of the medium as virtually incompressible materials, the basis of
hydraulic systems, experience the same increase in the speed of sound relative to density.
Such compression is, rather, the ability of the medium to conduct isolinear momentum
without excessive dispersion.

An increase in the speed of sound through a body does not result in the loss of inertia.
Conversely, it results in the increase in inertia since the entire body must be moved by
the applied force, at the moment of inertia, rather than the applied force simply changing
the inertial state of small parts of the body in any moment until the whole body is in its
new, steady, inertial state. This can be conveniently expressed as F=MA where force is
the mass of the body times the acceleration.

F/A=M therefore, the higher the inertial conduction (acceleration), the lower the mass
which can be accelerated by it. This action is also time dependant, possessing the
property of quantum energy. Quantum energy requires that the whole quantum of energy
required to change a state must be applied in one instant or it will have no effect on the
system. There is never a 'residual' in quantum energy. None of the 'excess' energy from
one moment is available to change the state of the body in the next moment.

Movement through space is the result of two factors combined. The first of these is an
imbalance. Unless there is a difference in potential, there is no force that can drive
motion. Most of the time, in warp space, this will be a pressure differential between the
ends of your craft and in line with the motion resulting from the imbalance. This means
that, if your ship is pushed along by a high pressure, toward a lower pressure, your ship
will move in a strait line between these two areas of pressure.

The second factor is force. We cannot move a body through space without directly
effecting it and that is where force comes into the picture. Force is a combination of
mass and acceleration. Since our craft will have mass and we wish to move it, requiring
acceleration, this makes sense. Force is the relationship between mass and acceleration.

Force is where the math comes in. As with all measurements, force must be measured in
relative units, relating to a standard. If you can grasp the concept of what force is,
something that you already deal with in everyday life and never think about, then the rest
will be easy. One kilowatt of force is 2,655,200 foot-pounds/hour and 367,098
Kilogram-meters/hour. Kilowatts were chosen here because they convert to metric or
standard units and because they are a measure that we are used to equating with power.
It is important that you think of force in terms of power in warp mechanics because it is
more accurate in warp propulsion systems and it keeps you from thinking in Newtonian
terms.

One mile is 5,280 feet so one kilowatt is the force required to move one pound of matter
up to a velocity of 502.88 miles in each hour of motion. If you have 2 pounds of force,
your will then reach a velocity of 251.44 miles per hour, or half the velocity of one
pound. Given two kilowatts and one pound, the resulting velocity is 1,005.76 miles per
hour. I am writing all of this out to make sure that you see the relationship. Since
pounds is only valid in our equations when the mass is in a gravitational field of one G
magnitude, you will not be working in these units much.

Kilometers are easier to convert. One kilowatt will move one kilogram of matter to a
velocity of 367.098 kilometers per hour. If you weigh 100 kilograms, one kilowatt of
force will push you at 3.67 kilometers per hour. Given two kilowatts, the push will
double, so you'll be going at about 7.34 kilometers per hour. This is an important idea.
Each kilowatt of power will propel a body forward at 367.098/Kg kilometers per hour.
(KW*367.098)/Kg = kilometers per hour of push.

As I wrote, pounds is only accurate for measuring masses in a gravitational field of one
G, therefore it doesn't apply to warp mechanics. However, we haven't left the Earth at
this point, so it's still valid. Warp mechanics may be the only form of propulsive theory
in which gravitational fields, aside for the propulsive field, are not significant to the craft
being propelled. Aside from the interaction of gravitational fields with our propulsive
field, gravity will drop out of later discussions.

We have now reached the heart of the matter. Suppose that we pull a one pound weight
against a spring at one mile per hour and then release the weight so that the spring throws
it forward at twenty miles per hour? The weight moved back with a force of 502.88
kilowatts, then moved forward with a force of 10,057.6 kilowatts. At that rate, the same
weight has a force imbalance of 9,554.72 Kilowatts. That's enough to move 19 pounds
at 502.88 miles per hour.

All that we've done to produce this imbalance is to release all of the energy faster. The
spring absorbed all 10,057.6 kilowatts when it was compressed and released all of that
energy at once when it was triggered. At this point our model is purely mathematical and
lacks a number of factors that apply in the real world. Our model would take 20 seconds
to store the energy if it was released in one second. That sudden release is why this
system is called an impulse thruster. A steady stream of impulses creates an apparently
steady propulsion.

r

in relation to our desired vector of motion, however, they will always be positive in
quantity. A negative energy would violate the second law of thermodynamics by making
the destruction of energy possible.

Now we reach the first principle of warp technology. The main reason we exceed the
light speed limit is inertia. As a body approaches the light speed limit, C, it's mass will
increase exponentially up to infinity at C. Our second problem is the 'time slip' which
states that time must stand still to a body moving at C or the principle of relativity will be
violated. I'll get to the second problem later.

Field acceleration refers to the acceleration of the body by applying the momentum to the
components that make up the body rather than to the body itself. The difference may
seem small, however, it is profound. In older forms of propulsion, force is applied from
the power plants and is subject to inertia as it propagates through the body to change its
inertial state. With a field accelerator, the body is immersed in the field and biased to a
certain inertial state. There is no inertial effect since the force does not have to propagate
across the body.

Any quantum force of sufficient capacity can produce a warp field. Gravitation is the
most often expressed force, however, electromagnetism is the most used force since it is
the most controllable and understood. It is also important to note that electro weak force,
of which electromagnetic force is a subset, is kinetic whereas gravitoh2 force is static.
Static forces are difficult to bias and often require an actual imbalance in the field to
achieve the warp effect. Kinetic forces have a polarity and can easily be biased in their
natural flows without applying undue stress to the structure of the body involved.

Handling the 'time slip' problem is the most complex part of the system. Although the
field is external to the body and does not experience the distortion of time in itself, the
body contained within the field has to cope with displacement as movement across vast
distances in space result in movement through equally vast amounts of time. This is an
unacceptable consequence of warp travel.

Field acceleration handles this as well. The body within the field experiences no inertia
and is therefore in a state of stable inertia all the time. Such bodies are moving at sub
light velocities sufficiently small as not to experience time slip. It is the surrounding
space that is warped by the accelerator field. Quantum acceleration of the entire field
frame compresses space in an isolinear fashion.

Two types of time disruption occur in faster than light (FTL) space flight; virtual and
actual. Actual time dilation is the difference between the relative 'speed' of time within
the warp field and time measured outside the field. Virtual time displacement is the
apparent change in time resulting from moving into space over distances so vast that your
point of departure appears to move backward in time and your destination seems to move
forward in time by an equally great distance.

Virtual time displacement is the one that cannot be solved at present and the simpler of
the two to describe, so I'll start there. Since light moves at a constant velocity, moving
faster than light will require light which leaves your point of origin at the present time to
have to catch up with you. That means that you could see yourself leaving port by
stopping at the right point and using a powerful enough theoretical telescope. If your
departure was broadcast to your destination, about a light week into space, you could
watch yourself leave your point of origin almost week after you arrived at your
destination!

Since higher life is also social life, this displacement has a real effect on the mental state
of star age (Ketueen) races. When you arrive at your destination, only hours after you
leave port, a week would appear to have passed even though you did not really slip
through time. The real displacement is that your only contact between these points will
have been limited to light speed limited communications. This means less in the age of
subspace radio, however, radio doesn't correct for your vision.

You see your point of origin moving back in time as you leave and your destination
moving forward as you approach it. At one time, this form of isolation posed a mental
health threat to colonists. They would sometimes look out into space and see a time
before their home star was created. Radio wasn't fast enough to counter this effect.

Actual time disruption results in the dilation of time within the cabin of your ship as a
result of it's forward momentum. We reduce this by compressing space along isolinear
channels between navigational points so that we can move through space at sub light
speeds while covering light-years in seconds. This dilation cannot be completely
neutralized because the ship will be moving and ANY velocity results in this effect. N-Stable drive compensates better than the I-Fix system, but the dilation is still there.

Common warp drive units are in the I-Fix class since they do not involve moving through
alternate dimensional vortexes. They are fixed in N-space that is the same 4-dimensional
time-space within which the ship originated. These drive units rely on the principles of
field acceleration to produce short-cuts between navigational points. This works by
producing h2 enough quantum fields along an isolinear corridor to produce an
apparent shortening of linear space between two points in N-space.

This effect is largely an illusion. Space itself does not really fold. The quantum field
projected to appear just ahead of the body to be conducted along the warp channel really
accelerates the body in such a way that no inertia is experienced, thus it appears that
space is moving and not the body being conducted along the channel. As a result, the
body within the field 'tricks' N-space into refreshing the structure of the body at a
distance from where it could actually have been while bounded by the light speed limit.

I-Fix drive mechanics is a combination between super string theory and aether theory.
Aether theory is the older of the two and was thought to have been disproven long ago,
until revived by corollaries of super string theory and relativity. Super string theory is
essential to warp dynamics in that it allows the bodies involved to be conducted along the
warp channel as the energy they are made of rather than as completed structures. If this
was not possible, the quantum fields required to produce the warp effect would crush the
body being conducted along them. Such bodies must be absorbed into the fields during
movement.

Aether theory expresses a material, called aether, through which magnetic waves
propagate. Gravity is expressed as the consumption of aether by mass, kind of like the
'vacuum' produced near the drain plug of a tub. Super string theory expands on this to say
that the aether is not consumed, but that it oscillates into another dimension to return at
another point where there is relatively no mass.

Super string theory is drawn from the fact that all 'solid particles' of matter can be
diffracted by the 'double slit experiment.' This indicates that subatomic particles are not
solid, but standing waves. That leads to a new view of reality in that nothing is really
solid. Warp theory draws from this to allow for a quantum field to be constructed along a
field-frame such that the body within the field is indistinguishable from the field. At that
point, the body cannot be destroyed by the field because there is no difference between
the field and the body.

Relativity also helps here. Imagine that there are two stars, one on each horizon from
where you are standing on a planet. Your planet is orbiting its star away from one star
and toward the other. Since the speed of light must be a constant, and you would see it as
higher on the star you are moving toward, there must be extra space compressed along
the leading edge of your orbit to account for the additional distance the light from that
star has to traverse to stay at a fixed speed. Likewise, there has to be a stretching of space
so that the light from the star you are moving away from does not appear to be moving
slower than C.

N-Stable drive units rely on the existence of dimensions which run along the same plane
as N-Space yet have important differing properties. For example, hyperspace is a
dimension that is essentially empty and has no light speed limit. These dimensions must
run along the same plane as N-Space so that re-entry is possible after the distance
required is traversed. The extancy of such planes is not beyond the reach of probability.

Extra-dimensional travel for short distances requires entry into a plane which matches the
state of N-Space adequately for the survival of the passengers of the vehicle making the
journey and a shift in phase which produces an effect which can be mapped onto N-Space as faster than light momentum for a fixed period of time. The survival aspect of
the requirements is understandable. Mapping an effect onto N-Space as a fixed period of
FTL movement is a bit more complex, but the entire process wouldn't be worth much
without it. Why bother using N-Stable drive if you cannot get anywhere you couldn't get
just as easily without it?

Hyperspatial travel is a limited subset of wormhole travel. A tunnel is created between
two distant points in N-Space and the body traversing that distance jumps into it. This is
a subset of wormhole travel, and not real wormhole travel, since a wormhole has no real
length. True wormholes are direct connections between distant points in N-Space which
can connect without regard for time or spatial distance.

Wormholes are like mirrors running in reverse. You look at a mirror from the side and
the mirror is an maybe inch thick. The reflection in the mirror is close to two
dimensional, and should be two dimensional. Looking at the mirror from the front will
yield a reconstruction of 4 dimensional N-Space within the apparent space of the
reflection. There is no true limit to the amount of space which can appear in this 2-D
matrix. It will appear as large as the space being reflected by the mirror, and last as long
as the unit of space being reflected.

With a wormhole, the effect is reversed. You look into the wormhole and see the N-Space at a great, or not so great, distance from your current location. It could be across
the room or across the universe. From the side, these locations will be separated by much
more distance than they are through the wormhole. Apparently, the length of the
wormhole from the outside is many times as great as the distance within the wormhole.

Moving through the wormhole requires a relative dimensional stabilizer. Any warp
capable ship will be able to use the inertial field accelerator as a stabilizer and enter the
wormhole. The real problem being that wormholes are are dimensionally unstable with a
tendency to collapse across any particle of solid matter which enters them. This effect is
due to the quantum folding of N-Space which causes solid matter to hold its shape. Warp
fields reduce the body within them into a single field frame which appears to be a
collection of genesit particles held suspended across a magnetic matrix.

Hyperspace uses wormholes to move into a parallel dimensional space which can be
relatively smaller than N-Space or where the light speed limit does not exist. Since these
dimensions overlap N-Space at every point, movement along these planes will allow you
to re-enter N-Space through another generated wormhole at a distance so great that light
could not cover the same distance in the same time frame. The case where space is
relatively smaller is the most like standard I-Fix drive, but it is not the only application of
compressed space. It is possible that the dimensions on the space you jump to can be
twisted in such a way that your ports are directly adjacent.

Perihelion is the most extreme case of spatial compression. In this case, only a single
point covers all of N-Space. From perihelion, you can return to N-Space at any point in
space-time without limits. This is the domain of a special breed of FLT drive called star-navigation. Bodies moving through perihelion using star-navigation are de-actualized for
entry and then re-actualized by the star-navigator at their destinations.

Spaces where the light speed limit does not exist also has an extreme case. It is possible
that additional planes which overlap N-Space use the same time-space, however, they use
it in differing orders. For example, time spent in one of these dimensions maps back to
distance traveled at light speed. This is not all that impressive unless you realize that
lateral movement maps back to time in N-Space, thusly the body can return to N-Space
before it left. Since velocity is a matter of distance and time, the light speed limit
technically does not exist in these dimensions.

Now that the cold theory is basically finished, or as far as I intend to go for now, we can
get into reducing the cold theory to practice. This is the exciting part even though it is
really just a matter of math and demonstrations of the concepts expressed to this point.
You are still years from reducing the hard science expressed here to your own working
drive units even if you understand everything in the remainder of this thesis. That's why
you spend years in the academy....

__RGFC:__

Long ago, the military was looking for a way to evade missile radar on ships. The
experiment was called the "Philadelphia Project." It worked by using a huge military
degausser that cloaked the ship in question within a huge magnetic field. This ship was
not only radar invisible, but actually vanished, to reappear many miles from its starting
point. Thusly began the application of spatial warp technology.

A book was written in an attempt to explain why this happened, and the entertainment
industry built a story around it so that most people didn't even know that there was a
factual basis to the whole thing. This was an excellent cover for the dissemination of
information and for keeping the general public from knowing what was really going on.
All the truth was generally available and nobody who was uninitiated cared to look.

From there, an experiment began circulating through the underground based on the
infamous military project. The file containing this experiment is called "RGFC" for
'Relative Gravity Field Control.' [Title breakdown is unconfirmed as of this writing.] This
experiment can be very hazardous if you are not fully prepared for the incredible heat it
will generate, so extreme caution should be used if you decide to go through with it. You
will be working with 50 Kev DC power systems flowing through coils and that is very
hazardous.

RGFC starts with a thermoplastic tube about two feet long and 8 inches in diameter. A
field coil is wound around this tube, and a second coil of equal capacity is placed within
the tube. This tube is sealed, with care to be sure it can handle a great deal of heat and
pressure, after flooding with glycerin. The glycerin was the optimal electrolyte for the
system when the file was last updated. Both the internal and the external coils are
charged to 50 Kev (DC), and then a 25 Kev power supply is split between the coils. Each
of these three power sources must be independent to avoid crossovers which will drain
the effect of this field wave guide. Connect the negative lead of the 25 Kev (DC) power
supply to the negative pole of the central coil's power and the positive pole to the positive
pole of the outer coil's feed.

The original design called for a third coil to run through the exact center of the whole
thing as an antenna to inject frequencies into the complete apparatus, however this has
been replaced by looping a coil around the outside of the completed wave guide. This
newer design makes for better field control. Structurally, the field guide is two
electromagnetic coils with a capacitent field across them. A central iron bar might
amplify the effect, however, it will also be subject to the same effect as the cores in high
voltage transformers and deform from the pulses in the huge magnetic field. Powdered
iron would be a better choice.

__Pionizer:__

Based on this design, I came to the pionization core system. In essence, the pionization
core is a more efficient and miniaturized version of the wave guide described in RGFC.
Three elements are used, each one acting as the wave guide listed above, placed in a cone
shape. Exact specifications of the pionization core are too sensitive to be released here,
however, I must detail how to use the completed structure.

Each pionization element has two power leads, and a pointed end. It takes three elements
to form a completed pionization core, mounted about a circle so that the three elements
are 120 degrees apart. (equidistant.) This assembly is tilted so that the pointed ends, close
to the center, but not touching, are above the assembly. Antenna leads are fixed to the
blunt end of each pionization element. Three elements is the minimum which can be used
to steer a phased array in 3-dimensions, and the angle of the elements adds to the
controllability.

The power leads of the three elements are tied together under the central ring, however,
they must not enter the actual field produced. Two of the elements are tied to the negative
supply from the leads on the blunt end, with the third accepting the positive lead.
Keeping the points of the three elements close together allows the quantum disturbance
to be maintained within the tight magnetic bottle.

" /*\ " " + /-\ - "

__Element 117 [Neutronium]__

Now we need an intense power supply. Scientists theorize that the elements of the
periodic table, which become radioactively unstable at about cesium in the periodic table,
eventually return to stable elements. This happens at Neutronium, element 117.
Neutronium is a black metal of massive density and semi conductive properties in the
same class as Carbon, Silicon and Germanium. We know this from its placement on the
periodic table.

How does this give us power? Since element 117 is the first stable element in the
periodic table, and decrease in the gravitoh2 quantum field will result in spontaneous
degeneration of Neutronium into a mass of matter and anti-matter. This degradation is so
fast that the inertia of the surrounding air is great enough to contain all but the magnetic
energy emissions. Since this is conducted across the pionization field, we can tap the
power easily.

There is a mismatch in this form of matter anti-matter reaction which yields genesit
particles. Positive matter and anti-matter do not have the same mass. Such an imbalance
limits the stable state of the fuel burned in the reactor. Over burning will result in the
build up of genesit particles and possible mass residue formation. Caution must be taken
to keep the engines burning clean.

Element 117 is not the only element which can be burned in this way, however, as it is
the densest element easily effected by this process, it will result in the highest energy
production. Heating the fuel increases the total energy production since it produces a
corresponding reduction in nuclear stability before fuel burn is initiated. This reaction is
bottled by the quantum field containment system and thusly is not constrained by the low
pressure requirement of magnetically bottled mass anti-mass reactors.

The oscillations of quantum mass in the aether is another source of quantum energy.
Since aether theory makes atoms themselves into mechanical systems, it is required that
these systems have a source of energy in order to be maintained. Theoretically, aether
burners draw their energy from the other dimensions into which the aether flows. There
is a huge amount of energy available if the aether flow itself can be tapped.

Aether burners are like paddle wheels placed in the flow or aether as it flows out of our
dimension through the quantum distortions of solid mass. Higher masses naturally have
greater quantum distortions yielding a larger aether flow. While the aether is flowing
between dimensions, it leaves low pressures surrounding the masses involved, and this
causes relative motion between any two masses which have aether flows associated with
them. In short, gravity.

Actual aether cannot be burned. If it was consumed, the universe itself would experience
a much higher entropy level than it does. Eventually, the universe would collapse inward
upon itself as the fabric of aether into which space is woven would grow steadily smaller.
Observed reality is better served by the theorem that aether simply oscillates back into N-Space at points of no mass.

This theory also states that warp systems not be used close to any inhabited system
because there is a maximal velocity to the aether flow of space and this results in a
buildup of gravity in any place where warp systems regularly operate. Space takes time
to compress and decompress. Use of warp systems in open, inter-stellar, space is advised
since this space will have a lower compression and is most likely to decompress between
jumps.

Quantum energy theory states that energy can be extracted from this system indefinitely
so long as the amount extracted in any quantum-moment is too small to promote a state
change. In short, you can extract as much power from the field as you like, as long as you
don't take so much at any one time that you deform the field. This amount of energy,
constructively and destructively, is referred to as a quantum. Because this energy must be
extracted in a single time period, a moment, the whole unit describing the quantity and
time is called a quantum moment.

Systems which draw power from Quantum energy systems are called Quantum Flow
Reactors. In these systems, a steady quantum field, with a power level just in excess of
the last quantum state achieved, is bottled by a physical limitation of the field itself. It is
important that the quantum field have a density in excess of the state it occupies since
this is all the energy that can be extracted without producing a change in the quantum
state and discharging the reactor.

The decrease in light speed over measured time implies that there is some form of
conductive substrate beneath the fabric of space. This substrate would have to have
properties in order for those properties to be altered. Since this effect will distort your
range calculations and the apparent velocity of bodies at non trivial distances that are
within range of warp propulsion systems, you will need to study this in depth in special
geometry. It has been argued that the fabric of space is simply settling into its final state
by losing energy to the matter contained within it. Should that theory prove accurate, the
change in light speed will not be uniform over time and will eventually end.

Calibrating the system for use requires knowing the relationship between the field and
the relative velocity generated. Since these tests have yet to be done to figure the precise
amount of energy involved to create an effect of any measured amount, we will express
our calculations based upon a set of known values which is specific to the configuration
involved. These are:

**1. ) The radius of the resulting event horizon. All quantum compression fields
result in the creation of apparent black holes. The event horizon is the exact
point in this 'hole' where the escape velocity is C.**

**2. ) Our distance from the center of the event. Center of gravity is an important
constant in any spatial compression system. It is the best place to measure
range from since it is the point at which all the force of the event appears to
be coming from.**

**3. ) Period of exposure. This one is kind of touchy since we can leave this value
in the resulting value and have a velocity which is added to the relative
velocity of the ship to result in its final velocity much in the same way as
you'd add wind speed to planet based flight through an atmosphere.**

*[Factor 1, radius, is R | Factor 2, distance, is D | Factor 3, time, is T ] *

*2CR^2T/D^2 = compressed space.*

**Quantum fields fall off by the inverse square law. Relative to your starting point,
you move off twice as far and the field is 1/4 as h2. 1/2^2 = 1/4. (2^2 means 2
squared. Please accept my apology for not having a superscript key handy.) If you
move off until you are 3 times as distant, the field strength is 1/9 since 1/3^2 is 1/9.
This leads to an interesting observation which will be important in the actual
calibration section. **

**Mass builds up in 3 primary dimensions, however, the gravity falls off in only 2
dimensions. The effect of gravity, in keeping with the increased volume creating it,
should be a minimum of cubed and it is only squared. Gravity appears to act in a
strait line between the centers of gravity, thusly one dimension, and the other
dimension is theorized to be time itself. Measuring gravity is always in a velocity,
thus we need a distance and a time. **

**At this point, our formula is 1/D^2 . Half as far from the center of gravity and the
field is 4 times as great. 1/(1/2)^2 = 1/(1/4) = 4/1 = 4 . Four times as great as what?
We have the answer in our list of relative factors. Four times as great as C. C/D^2
leaves us with one problem. This formula is only valid if D is measured in units of R.
We must free up the formula a bit by putting R into the equation to enforce the
relative balance for any system of measurement. **

**R^2/D^2 . What we start out needing is (D/R)^2 which expresses D as how many
units of R we are from the center of the event. This is important because our
formula is only valid if D is measured in lengths of R. Then we go through the
conversion: (D/R)^2=(D/R)(D/R)=D^2/R^2 . Since this is on the bottom of the
equation, C/(D/R)^2, we have to calculate 1/(D^2/R^2) which is R^2/D^2. The
formula is now CR^2/D^2 . **

**Our next constant is T. What we're after is a matter of distance, and calculating out
the units of this equation, we resolve to a velocity: (m/s * m^2 / m^2 = m/s) To get
rid of the seconds, we have to multiply 1/s by s. S is seconds, thus we need a time
value in the equation. CR^2T/D^2 is the result. If we leave out the time constant,
we'll have the acceleration added to some I-fix drives which place a quantum
disturbance just ahead of them and 'fall' faster than light. **

**The total compression of space really does not end at the center of gravity, so we
end up with a total compression of 2CR^2T/D^2 . This is the weakest portion of the
formula since, although undeniably real, can the ship really use this portion of the
warp? Only if the ship crosses the center of gravity. There is only one safe way of
doing that and it involves placing the center of the warp field within the ship itself. **

**At the center of gravity, D=0. 2CR^2T/0^2 is undefined in common mathematics. In
higher forms of math, it is possible to prove that 1/0 is not undefined, but infinity.
This point must be avoided since there is no single point of N-Space which could
contain more than all of N-Space. By the geometric definition of dimensions, this
point is in another dimension.
**

By definition, a point is a unit that occupies no space. Stack an infinite number of points,
end to end, such that AB+BC=AC and you will have a line which is 1 unit in length and
no units in width. AB+BC=AC is the simple mathematical definition of between. It
means that, the distance from A to B along a strait line, plus the distance from B to C
along a strait line, is the same as the distance between A and C. Every point in this line is
required to be between the point where you start and the point where you end up.

Your line segment has no width. Stack enough of them side by side with each line being
between your first line and your last line, and you will have a single plane with a width of
1 unit. Again, this simply requires an infinite number of lines and an extended definition
of between. It does not matter what unit of measurement you end up with, the concept is
the same. Zero times infinity is 1.

I can hear many of your thoughts stating "zero times any NUMBER is 0." To this I
respond, "what number?" Both zero and infinity are concepts, not numbers. Zero is a
place holder and takes the place of a number which has no value. Infinity is, by
extension, also a place holder. Rather than having no value, infinity has ALL value.
These concepts are opposites.

Stacking an infinite number of planes will give you a single unit of height. The width of a
true plane is infinite, as is the length of a true line. We have now come up to 3
dimensions and a fourth remains. It remains to be seen if N-Space is bounded or infinite
in any single dimension, however theory leans toward N-Space being limited in all 4
dimensional planes which it crosses.

An infinite stack of 3-D spaces will give you a single unit of duration. Q-Techs, such as
myself, often refer to any single 3-D space as a moment. It is like a frame of film holding
an infinitely small portion of time in a static representation. A moment lasts for no period
of time and is a basic concept of physics. 4-D N-Space is dynamic and physical
computation will be error prone because of imperfections in the way moments project
across seconds, like the smearing of moving objects in any single frame of film.

If we extend this, we end up with an infinite amount of time-space becoming a single unit
of 5-D space. Our entire known reality is just a single point at this higher level. From this
point, it would be possible to enter anywhere in our time-space. However, our N-Space is
so small that it would be lost if you move at all in this higher plane.

Star-Navigators are an odd breed of men in that they're born with the gift of being able to
actualize across this vortex at perihelion. I will not get into these mechanics as it is
beyond the scope of this paper, yet, it is a fascinating application of Quantum principle
and mechanical capacity. Unless you have a star-navigator and the photon echo array he
needs, do not cross this central vortex of the warp field.

In order to minimize power consumption with our system, we minimize the effective
area of the warp field. We would waste a great deal of energy if we tried to
compress space in a sphere that contained the total volume of our ship. It would
prepare the space all around the craft for the hull to move in any direction and that
is not what we're trying to do. The power requirements are high enough without
trying to create a field twice the volume that we would need.

The warp field must fill a volume of cubic units. Common warp velocities are
computed as xC^3 where x is your warp factor as a result of this idea. Not
everybody uses the same scale. Although the field wants to form a sphere, with an
area of [Pi]r^3, the optimal warp field is much closer to a cylinder with an area of
[Pi]Lr^2 where radius is r and L is the length of the tube. Like moving down a
straw, we only want the field to form where it does work for us.

This idea is called warp channeling. We effect the special conductivity of the area of
space that lies between our position in space and our destination in space. It is like
cutting a tunnel through space where the speed limit is higher than it is in
surrounding space. Because our field is smaller than it would be if we tried to
manipulate space that our trip does not involve, we can produce a more intense field
in that smaller space with the same energy. Warp one engines can be tuned to reach
warp two in a channel.

Compression warp channels are not the only type. You can also effect the nature of
space through the channel so that the space conducts matter better. Think of it as
walking through a pool of water that comes up to your chest. The water has a
certain resistance to your motion through it. Imagine if you could part the waters
and walk through in a less dense material like air. We refer to these as Factorial
channels.

Rather than a compressive channel with a factor of 3/1 compression, where your
ship moves at three times light speed, you would have a 1/3 factorial channel where
C is three times as high. Factorial channels can be created by removing the
resistance to motion within your channel or by increasing the conduction of your
craft's hull through the free space. The field can act on the permeability of space
either by altering the conductive properties of the time space manifold or by
cloaking the hull of the ship from the resistive factors.

A standard, class 1, field frame is generated from an array of nine pionization elements
arranged in 3 pionization cores. The pionization cores are equidistant around the ship's
hull, forming an equilateral triangle. Class 1 is primarily for small craft so this small
assembly is sufficient as it is adequate also for our discussion. Three pionization cores,
given enough power could handle a body of any size. Configuration is the key.

Each core is made up of 3 pionization elements fashioned into a cone with the top cut off.
The area between the points at the top of the cone is for the bottled quantum disturbance.
In essence, the body of the warp capable structure is ringed with three contained 'black
holes' at specific points along its hull. These cores are usually positioned just ahead of the
center of the ship along a horizontal axis, with the cores facing forward in the same
vertical plane.

To use the drive, it must be calibrated at this point. The angle of the pionization cores
must be adequate for the three quantum disturbances to combine ahead of the ship
without passing through any part of the ship. If the fields intersect the body of the ship,
structural instability will result. Tune the frequency injectors of each pionization element
so that the quantum disturbance generated by each core will move along the skin of your
ship at a distance no less than 1 diameter from impacting with any part of the ship.

The minimal angle at which the 3 cores can combine quantum fields as close the nose of
the ship as possible without hitting the skin, is called the ship's critical angle. Do not
exceed this angle. Conversely, the power limits state that the quantum disturbances can
only remain bottled up to a given distance from the pionization cores, the main reason
that the cores are forward of the ship's center, and this is referred to as the range angle.
As the term implies, this sets the ship's warp range by setting the maximum compression
the ship can handle.

At this point, the field looks like a cone. It originates from 3 points and extends until the
three field beams combine into a single field just ahead of the ship's nose. From this
vortex, where the three quantum disturbance fields combine, a single compression
channel forms directly forward from the ship's nose. This is the ship's warp channel.

To chose a ship's vector, setting a course, you would draw a line from your ship's center
of gravity to the destination point in space. Then, you steer the beams generated when
each core extends it's quantum disturbance until the beams intersect at a point on that line
as close to the ship's nose as possible. All three beams must be balanced so that no single
field is clearly h2er than any other. When the beams combine, the entire front of the
ship will become a singular field-frame and be pulled into the warp channel. Your trip
begins when the quantum-moment of the fields first reaches the inertia of your vessel.

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